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8/8/2000 - Women in India Rally for Quota in Parliament
Women protesters rallied in India’s capital on August 8th, urging passage of legislation that would reserve one-third of seats in parliament and state legislatures for women. “Women are no longer satisfied with the government’s assurances and promises and want action,” stated Sonia Gandhi, the main opposition Congress Party president. Gandhi has argued that the bill, which was introduced in Parliament in December 1998, is crucial to increasing women’s representation in the highest levels of decision-making. Currently, there are 41 women members of parliament in the 545-member lower house of parliament.
The Zimbabwe police is investigating claims by the Commercial Farmers’ Union (CFU) that war veterans abducted and sexually abused at least 10 schoolgirls. Thousands of squatters are illegally occupying white-owned farms across Zimbabwe, creating daily tension and violence that threatens the livelihood of the country’s tobacco exports. According to the CFU, which represents mostly white farmers, the veterans kidnapped and abused 10 black schoolgirls on a farm.
Guatemala’s army was responsible for 92 percent of child abductions during the country’s brutal 36-year civil war, according to a recent report released by the Archdiocese of Guatemala. The 200-page report, based on information from interviews with parents and relatives of 86 children, marks an unprecedented step by the Guatemalan government to discuss the forced disappearances of children.
Gunmen in Afghanistan shot and killed 12 people on August 5th, including seven Afghan aid workers employed at the Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation. Ravaged by decades of war, Afghanistan is one of the most heavily mined countries in the world. There are an estimated 10 million landmines in Afghanistan. “In the capital, Kabul, alone an average of 50 people a day died or were injured by mines and shells in 1995,” said a United Nations report. De-miners have discovered 51 different types of mines, including one that leaps from the ground before it explodes. Mines in Afghanistan not only pose a severe security threat for civilians, but also impede the cultivation of land and food production. Although the massacre occurred in a Taliban-controlled region, Taliban officials have denied responsibility for the killings.
In an effort to end forced marriages of British nationals, the British Foreign Office and Home Office have devised a multi-faceted program that will offer support to victims of forced marriage through increased outreach and law enforcement. The measures include issuing potential victims of forced marriage with pocket-sized lists of support telephone numbers and establishing a program that will enhance interaction between British and overseas police forces. Every year at least 1,000 British women, the majority of whom are teenagers, are coerced into marriages in Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh, as well as Africa and the Middle East. In June of this year the Home Office published a report condemning the practice of forced marriage as a violation of human rights. “Multicultural sensitivity is no excuse for moral blindness,” remarked Home Office Minister Mike O’Brien.
8/7/2000 - HIV/AIDS Strikes Women First
As a result of economic inequity, persistent discrimination, and unequal healthcare access, women are the most vulnerable to HIV infection, according to the latest UNAids report. Women in sub-Saharan Africa, who constitute 55 percent of the HIV infections, continue to struggle for access to contraceptives and education and for freedom from sexual assault, rape, and violence. In an open letter to South Africa’s President Thabo Mbeki prior to the 13th International Aids Conference, a group of women’s organizations called on Mbeki to act decisively on the gender-specific concerns of women in the epidemic. The letter argued that gender inequality is the key obstacle to AIDS prevention, noting that the number of women’s HIV infection is skyrocketing in countries where women’s sexual and reproductive rights are violated.
Amid a wave of anti-pedophile violence, the British government refused to make public a list of convicted sex offenders but promised to protect children from abuse and molestation in other ways. Two weeks ago, Britain’s top-selling tabloid The Sunday News of the World began running photographs and whereabouts of men convicted of molesting children who have been released from prison. Rioting crowds have demanded that the list be made public, igniting lynch mob attacks and firebombings that have ravaged 11 communities across England and Scotland. Much of the violence has been directed at homes of people wrongly identified as suspected pedophiles.
News of the World recently collected 300,000 petitions that urge the government to establish “Sarah’s Law,” in memory of Sarah Payne, an eight-year-old girl who was abducted and later found dead and naked in July. The law would be similar to “Megan’s Law,” the 1994 U.S. legislation named after Megan Kanka, a seven-year-old girl raped and murdered by a repeat sex offender. Megan’s Law required that all sex offenders register with the police and alerted community organizations to the presence of repeat offenders in the area. The law also prohibited verbal and physical vigilantism.
Pakistan’s military ruler stated that his government will continue to support the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, claiming that he did not want to antagonize the ethnic population living on either side of the border. The global community has condemned Pakistan’s support of the Taliban, which is known for its oppressive policy toward women and girls. Pakistan, which is suspected of offering the Taliban military and economic assistance, is the only country apart from the United Arab Emirates to officially recognize the regime. “The Taliban Administration represents the majority Pashtun population in Afghanistan and it is in our interest to support them,” General Pervez Musharraf stated. The general’s statement, which will undoubtedly alienate the multiple ethnic groups persecuted by the Taliban, marks the first time that a Pakistani leader has defended support for the Taliban on an ethnic basis. Musharraf’s statement clearly reflects that international pressure on Pakistan has had little effect.
Physicians and public health advocates are urging the Kenyan government for immediate legalization of abortion, an issue they say is crucial to ensuring complete reproductive health care services to women. Abortion, which is illegal in Kenya except in cases where the woman’s health is endangered, is one of the top five major causes of maternal mortality in Kenya. The current ban on abortion, according to Dr. Charles Okumu, the director of Nairobi Gynae Center, forces women to seek unsafe and frequently fatal abortions. But it is the poor in Kenya who bear the brunt of damage inflicted by the abortion ban; one female gynecologist who requested anonymity noted that abortions are available to women with money. Abortion on request, she commented, is only illegal for the poor.
Around 900 women students from 115 countries will pursue postgraduate studies at the International Women’s University in Hanover, Germany. The project, depicted as “innovative and unprecedented in form and character,” will end its four-month long pilot phase on October 15th during the world exhibition Expo 2000.
The women’s university stresses an interdisciplinary form of study that focuses on the themes of body, city, information, migration, water, and work. The International Women’s University hopes to establish and fortify a global network for academic women and increase opportunities for research on women’s issues.
The United Nations Chairman of the Security Council Sanctions committee on Sierra Leone announced on August 1st the composition of a panel that will examine the trade of diamonds for arms and other military material. Although the U.N. Security Council enacted a diamonds embargo, the illegal trade persists in diamond-rich Sierra Leone, where brutal rebel forces trade their diamonds for weapons, fuel, and other materials necessary to maintain their nine-year long battle. The United States also recently urged the Liberian government to cease support for the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) rebels, repeating its threat to impose sanctions. Liberian Foreign Minister Monie Captan met with Undersecretary of State Thomas R. Pickering on August 3rd for the second time in two weeks. Pickering stated, “I told him we were disappointed that we hadn’t seen any significant change” in Liberian policy. It is estimated that Liberia purchases 60 percent of rebel-mined diamonds from RUF in return for arms and other materials.
In a report released to the Security Council on August 1st, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan characterized the situation in Sierra Leone as "dangerous and volatile." The report states that there is “no credible sign” that the Revolutionary United Front rebels will resume the peace process and end its attacks on U.N. peacekeepers, describing RUF’s violence as a matter of “grave concern.” RUF rebels are known for gruesome practices such as chopping off the breasts of women, systematically raping women and children, and capturing children to use them as soldiers.
A U.S. soldier was sentenced to life without parole for sodomizing and murdering an 11-year-old Kosovo Albanian girl while on peacekeeping duty in Kosovo. Staff Sergeant Frank Ronghi pled guilty to sodomy and premeditated murder of the young girl, Merita Shabiu, shortly before the U.S. military court trial in Germany began on July 31st. In a moving testimony before the court, Shabiu’s father said, “My daughter welcomed the peacekeepers. She was very happy because she thought they had come to protect us.” Sergeant Ronghi murdered Shabiu in an abandoned building in January of this year and attempted to hide her mutilated body in nearby woods.
Somali women, who have long been excluded from their country’s political scene, are celebrating a major gain in their movement to increase women’s representation in the nation’s highest levels of decision-making. Parliamentary members and representatives of nongovernmental organizations convened in Aarta, Somalia for a reconciliation conference, establishing a quota system in which 10 percent of the 250 parliamentary seats will be reserved for women. “With all these years of civil war, when there was no administration, it was the women who kept the families alive, who kept the non-governmental organizations going. They won this role,” said Asha Haji Elmi, an economist and head of the Women’s Association.
Although the system will distribute the 25 women’s seats evenly within Somalia’s five clans, which are akin to political parties, women stress that the interests of a particular clan will take a backseat to women’s rights. “We want to be the rainbow coalition, because we come from all the clans and we hope to vote in a block during the election of the (transition) president,” said Elmi. The quota-system was a hard-won gain for Somali women, who endured and overcame the conservatism of traditional and religious leaders.
A Bosnian Muslim woman testifying in a civil lawsuit against the former leader of the Bosnian Serbs fainted in a federal court as she described her rape and torture during the Balkans conflict in 1992. She said that the soldiers, who wore photographs of their leader Radovan Karadzic, captured her and her two young children and repeatedly raped her inside a mountainside shack. “I could not resist, I could not fight them. I could not resist because the others were holding me while my children were watching.” Although Karadzic has been indicted for genocide by the international war tribunal in The Hague, the lawsuit, which seeks millions of dollars from Karadzic, is the first time American courts have ever exerted federal jurisdiction on a Bosnian war case. Karadzic, who is believed to be hiding in Bosnia, is regarded as the mastermind of the genocide, rape, and torture that ravaged Bosnia in the early 1990s.
An advisory panel on gender equality to Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori urged the Japanese government to enact legislation that would end domestic violence on July 31st. The Council for Gender Equality labeled domestic violence a criminal act, warning in its report that there is "not a moment to lose" in halting violence in the home. Domestic violence has long been perceived in Japan as a personal issue rather than as a crime. Calling for tougher legislation and increased counseling, the Council denounced the reluctance of police and public institutions to intervene in cases of domestic violence. One in 21 women polled have said that that their husbands or partners committed life-threatening violence against them, according to a survey released by the Prime Minister's Office in February.
Fifty three women and children were killed by uniformed men in Burundi when they refused to go to a government regroupment camp on July 22nd. The government has forced hundreds of tens of thousands of people into regroupment camps, claiming that their land is necessary to counter rebel forces. Burundi's civil war has lasted seven years and claimed at least 200,000 lives, mostly civilian.
Since the fall of the Berlin wall ten years ago, Germany has suffered from rightist violence, and more recently, attacks against immigrants have increased. On July 27th Neo-nazi skinheads bombed Dusseldorf, wounding nine immigrants. The most violence incident occurred in the eastern town of Eisenach, where Neo-Nazis attacked African asylum seekers. In the last decade, over 100 people have been killed in Germany as a result of xenophobic assaults. According to a New York Times report, the violence is partly due to high unemployment in eastern Berlin and the reluctance of Germans to adopt multiculturalism. The relatively new concept of a multicultural Germany is a policy priority of the government, which is attempting to make the country a "land of immigration."
In a disturbing program that sought to "cure" homosexuals by applying "aversion therapy" to suspected "deviants," the South African Defense Force (SADF) tortured, chemically castrated, and performed sex-change operations on national servicepeople during the apartheid era. According to a report by the Medical Research Council, the "aversion therapy" was created and tested by Aubrey Levine, a chief psychiatrist at Voortrekkerhoogte, a military hospital. Many of the remaining victims today are crippled and left mutilated by incomplete sex-change operations, and others are sterile as a result of the chemical castration. One victim of chemical castration committed suicide after carefully documenting the abuses perpetrated by Levine. Among other atrocities, Levine allegedly forced victims to participate in the gang rape of Angolan woman.
The SADF targeted suspected lesbians in the armed forces as well. Targeted lesbians were subjected to severe electric shocks. Trudie Gobler, an intern psychologist who was forced to watch a therapy session conducted by Levine, said that the electric shocks were so severe that the shoes of one suspected lesbian flew off. "I presume that the same strength, method and everything was given to the woman. It was traumatic. I could not believe how her body could handle it." The National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality in South Africa estimates that the number of victims of the top-secret project to be in the hundreds.
The United States and Britain condemned Liberia and Burkina Faso for their military assistance to a brutal rebel group in Sierra Leone, accusing the West African nations of violating a United Nations embargo. Liberia and Burkina Faso may face unilateral sanctions from the U.S. and Britain for arming the notorious Revolutionary United Front (RUF) group with weapons, food, fuel, and medical supplies in return for access to Sierra Leone's diamonds. RUF depends on its smuggling of diamonds to Liberia and Burkina Faso for its purchase of weapons. "The governments of Liberia and Burkina Faso ... are fueling the war in Sierra Leone and profiting from the arms-for-diamonds trade," remarked Richard Holbrooke, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations. At a two-day United Nations hearing on Sierra Leone diamonds beginning on July 31st, witnesses testified that the presidents of Liberia and Burkina Faso were directing RUF's war strategy and facilitating the diamond business.
The RUF is known for gruesome practices such as chopping off the breasts of women, systematically raping women and children, and kidnapping children to use them as soldiers. In recent months, the rebels held more than 500 U.N. hostages and incited conflict with U.N. peacekeepers.
8/1/2000 - Women Prisons Established by the Taliban
The women prisons established by the Taliban represent yet another facet of the gender apartheid imposed by the brutal regime. Mary MacMakin, an American aid worker who was imprisoned by the Taliban for four days in July, commented, "The jail had four women to a room. New arrivals would sit down on the steps sobbing and sobbing." Taliban authorities refuse to release jailed women until they prove that they have learned passages from the Koran.
According to a report by the U.N. Commission on Human Rights, several Taliban-operated prisons, all in poor condition, arbitrarily detain hundreds of women. In Kandahar province, a women's prison allegedly holds more than 400 women. One woman was imprisoned for speaking to a man in the street. The Taliban, which controls 90 percent of Afghanistan, has prohibited women from leaving their homes without a close male relative. Taliban authorities have beaten women for trying to go to work and for leaving their homes alone or without wearing a burqa.
Ireland's Attorney General Michael McDowell claimed on July 30th that women would make false rape accusations if the Irish government allowed survivors of rape to have abortions. Abortions remain illegal in all cases except endangerment of the mother's life in the Republic of Ireland. But little evidence exists to support McDowell's claim, according to Olive Braiden, director of the Rape Crisis Center. In fact, the new focus on false accusations of rape neglects the reality of this pervasive crime, while trivializing the debilitating experiences that rape survivors undergo. "When you consider the time a rape victim has to wait, the trauma, the lengths you have to go to and the low number of convictions, I felt the point he made absolutely jarred with any woman in this situation," Braiden commented.
Recent reports indicate that approximately 6,000 women a year travel to Britain for abortions. Amid recent criticism from the United Nations Human Rights Committee, legislators and religious groups, most prominently from the Catholic Church, are mired in an intense debate over a possible reform of abortion laws.
The United Nations Human Rights Committee sharply criticized the Australian government's oppression of Aborigines, stating that its discrimination against indigenous people violated an international human rights treaty. The panel of international experts urged Australia to reform mandatory sentencing laws that set jail terms for repeat offenders, which target and disproportionately punish young Aborigines who commit minor crimes. The committee also rebuked Australia for its reluctance to amend the damage done by past assimilation policies. Between 1910 and 1970 the government authorized the abduction of around 100,000 young Aborigines so that the indigenous persons could be raised in a "civilized" environment. The U.N. panel, urging Australia to make compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights a legal priority, argued that Aborigines - who constitute 2.3 percent of a population of 19 million - still suffer from discrimination.
An American soldier who confessed to murdering an 11-year-old girl while on peacekeeping operations in Kosovo will face sentencing on July 31st. U.S. Staff Sergeant Frank Ronghi pled guilty to the sodomy and premeditated murder of an ethnic Albanian girl in Kosovo. He faces a maximum penalty of life imprisonment without chance of parole.
France is proposing a new law that would extend the legal period for abortion from 10 to 12 weeks of pregnancy. The new proposal would erase the current legal provision that requires parental authorization for girls under the age of 18 to have an abortion or purchase the "morning-after pill. According to the Employment Minister, each year some 5,000 French women are forced to seek abortions in other countries due to the 10-week legal deadline to terminate pregnancy.
In a separate proposed bill that is scheduled for introduction in Parliament later this year would allow girls to purchase the "morning-after pill" over the counter without a prescription or parental authorization. If this bill becomes law it would overturn a ruling by France's highest administrative court that bans school nurses from distributing contraceptives to girls without a prescription.
The Immigration Appeals Centre in London has denied the asylum appeal of four of the 31 Afghan asylum seekers who were on board the hijacked Afghan aircraft that arrived at Stansted airport in Essex on February 7 of this year. A 21-year-old former medical student told immigration officials, "I'm not prepared to go back to Afghanistan under any circumstances. If the worst comes to the worst you will have to kill me and send my body back to Afghanistan." He reported that he had received lashings and been imprisoned by the Taliban militia for serving women in his work at a tailor shop. The brutal gender apartheid policies of the Taliban have systematically stripped women and girls in Afghanistan of their visibility, voice, and mobility. Judge Hubert Dunn described the medical students claim to asylum as "all but non-existent." Alarmingly, one woman was among the most recent four denied asylum.
The asylum-seekers appealed Home Secretary Jack Straw's decision to deny them political asylum because they claim to fear that the Taliban militia will kill them if they are returned to Afghanistan. Those denied asylum have 10 days to make a final appeal. The verdict on the remaining appeals are expected to be handed down in the next few days.