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The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) praised Nigeria's efforts to improve conditions for women there. Georgiana Nngeri-Nwaga, the agency's representative, commended the ban on female genital mutilation, inclusion of women in policy making, and increased enrollment of girls in school. Despite these advances, however, she noted that the practice of early marriages still exists as does domestic abuse and high mortality due to AIDS. Women are also still denied basic property inheritance rights in Nigeria, and the constant fighting between Muslim and Christian right wing forces remains an ominous threat to democracy, and particularly for the rights of women.
The first trials that focus specifically on war crimes committed against women during World War II will be held by the Women's International War Crimes Tribunal in Tokyo in December. The group's spokesperson, Yayori Matsui, said the event, which was made possible by the Violence Against Women in War-Japan's Women's Network (VAWW-NET), will clarify Japan's responsibility for sexual violence committed by imperial troops during the war.
Tamil rebels invade schools, homes, and orphanages to seize hundreds of children, some as young as 9 and 10 and many of them girls, and send them into battle against the Sri Lankan Army, reported the University Teachers for Human Rights. Since the rebels of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam began their fight for control of a northern region in the island, the number of children seized for military use has skyrocketed. "Girls have been in a large majority in the current round of recruitment in schools," the report noted. The Tamil Tigers regularly use torture and executions to prevent children from escaping.
Despite the gruesome nature of these atrocities, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, a key United Nations document that protects children in armed conflict, has not been ratified by the Senate. President Clinton signed the document on July 5th, but Senator Jesse Helms (R-NC), chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, has blocked the Convention's ratification.
The United Nations has begun formal talks with the Taliban to convince them to reverse their ban on Afghan women working for international relief agencies. According to U.N. officials, women workers in Afghanistan are crucial to safeguarding the health and education of Afghan women because male workers are forbidden to meet with women in the Taliban-controlled parts of the country.
The ban has come at a time of a resurgence of fighting between the Taliban and Northern Alliance, devastating drought, severe poverty, and land decimation. United Nations aid workers estimate that tens of thousands of displaced people who refuse to submit to the Taliban are living in tents in rural areas. Abdul Karim, one soldier in the rebel force, condemns the Taliban's interpretation of sharia (Islamic law) as oppressive and inaccurate. He remarked, "They say they're bringing sharia. But it's not sharia to beat women and children or build terrorist bases."
Women's groups are fighting to help rape survivors in Thailand, where the stigma and shame associated with rape has pushed thousands of young women into muted suffering and suicide. The rape of young girls is also an important part of a larger campaign that will widen Thai women's access to abortion and to legal counsel. Abortion remains illegal in Thailand, except in circumstances where the mother's life is threatened or in which the women can prove in court that they have been raped. An estimated 300,000 Thai women undergo illegal abortions every year.
7/14/2000 - Vancouver RU 486 Doctor Receives Death Threat
The day after Dr. Garson Romalis, an abortion provider in Vancouver, British Columbia, was stabbed outside of his medical office, another prominent Canadian doctor received a death threat on her answering service. Dr. Ellen Wiebe, an abortion provider who also recently initiated the first Canadian clinical trials of mifepristone, immediately called police and received an escort to her office. Due to the marked increase in violence against abortion providers and a notable drop in Canadian doctors who provide abortion services, healthcare professionals and government officials will be holding an emergency meeting to discuss security issues for doctors, nurses, clinic workers. Also on Thursday, the Canadian newspaper The Province received a call from a man claiming that a group called the "The Baby Liberation Army" was responsible for the stabbing and "They were sorry that [Romalis] didn't die." However, after consultation with law enforcement and Canadian and American pro-choice and anti-choice groups, all say they have no prior knowledge about such a group.
Recently, an anti-abortion advocate, Stockwell Day, won the leadership of the conservative Canadian Alliance party. Day, who also opposes gay and lesbian marriages, has been hailed as a major contender in the upcoming elections for prime minister. Marilyn Wilson, president of the Canadian Abortion Rights Action League, commented, "Day's going to try and deny that he would support any violence, and maybe he wouldn't follow up his beliefs with violence, but [our] position is that his platform and his rhetoric does incite other people who share his beliefs against abortion to violence."
Cyberspace is crucial to uniting Afghan women against the Taliban oppression and heightening public awareness of the regime's atrocities. Mavis Leno, a spokesperson for the Feminist Majority's Campaign To Stop Gender Apartheid remarked, "It creates a brilliant way to have a very active participation in world politics, particularly with regard to human rights, a way that was never available to people without the Internet." The Feminist Majority's Campaign to Stop Gender Apartheid website (http://www.feminist.org/afghan/intro.html) is a proven organizing tool to pressure the United States Government and the United Nations, through American public action, not to support the Taliban. Women's rights organizations all over the world, including the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA), have seized the power of the Internet in advocating women's issues that are often not a focal point of international media. Thanks to the websites and ongoing issue raising by groups like the Feminist Majority and RAWA, the catastrophic situation of Afghan women and girls brought on by sadistic Taliban laws are included in U.S. and U.N. humanitarian and foreign policy matters.
7/14/2000 - Women in Ghana Protest Serial Murders
On July 10th hundreds of women demonstrated in front of the police headquarters in Accra, Ghana, demanding resolution to the serial murders of 25 women. The women threatened not to vote in the upcoming December elections until the police take firmer action on the murders and establish hotlines for reporting rape and violence. Chanting and carrying placards that read "If the Killings Don't Stop, No Vote For Any party," the women vowed to strike in their homes and workplaces. These murders have persisted for the past two years, but police have not yet prosecuted any suspects.
The 13th International AIDS Conference held in Durban, South Africa has helped to raise international attention to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A report by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) states that the AIDS virus would orphan 30.2 million children in sub-Sahara Africa. The USAID report indicates a 10 million increase in orphans from the numbers provide by a recent United Nations Children's Fund Report (UNICEF). USAID states that its number is higher than UNICEF's because of estimates including children who lose either a mother or father or both.
Research shows that there are currently 16 million children who have lost at least one parent because of HIV/AIDS and 90 percent of those children are located in sub-Sahara Africa. UNICEF reports that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is particular threat to the lives of girls with teenage girls being infected at a rate 50% higher than that of boys.
Protecting women and girls from the HIV/AIDS epidemic is difficult due to the ongoing challenges to women's access to reproductive healthcare and stereotypical attitudes brought on by traditional cultures that do not encourage the use of condoms. Medical scientists have been researching microbiocides that would kill HIV in the vagina as a method to help women protect themselves form the virus in lieu of cultural attitudes.
LEARN MORE Click here to read women's narratives about barriers or successes in accessing reproductive health and family planning services.
International relief agencies have been working in an renewed climate of danger to their well-being since last week's Taliban edict ordering all aid agencies and the United Nations to dismiss all Afghan women staff. The Taliban now says this edict as motivated by consensus that Afghan women international aid workers could serve as spies.
Taliban officials took into custody Mary MacMakin after the release of the edict but has been deported from Afghanistan because of Taliban charges of spying and the spread of anti-Taliban propaganda. MacMakin dismisses the Taliban charges saying instead that she is a "threat for the Taliban because my work is with women.'' MacMakin who heads the Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Support for Afghanistan, has worked since 1997 to help Afghan women find home-based income generating projects. MacMakin states that "they (the Taliban) don't want women to work outside of the home, don't want them to be educated or give them a hint of freedom or be creative."
Since the Taliban control of the Afghan capitol Kabul in 1996, the extremist regime has enforced laws that refute women and girls access to education, employment outside of the home and quality medical care. The Taliban's attacks on the human rights of women and girls have contributed to Afghanistan's ranking of having the second highest maternal mortality rate in the world. A report released by the U.N. Commission on Human Rights indicates that every day in Afghanistan an average of 45 women die of pregnancy related causes resulting in 16,000 maternal deaths annually.
If Britain's Labor Party succeeds in passing new laws that mandate quotas, every political party will be legally required to select women and black members of Parliament (MPs) in parliamentary seats. In the upcoming elections, only one woman has been selected to run in the 29 available seats. Advocates of the new laws argue that the quota system is a necessary first step to erasing pervasive discrimination against women and minorities. Women's political representation in Britain ranks nearly at the bottom of developed countries. A dismal 18 percent of MPs are women compared with 43 percent in Sweden, 36 percent in Finland, and 31 percent in Germany.
The United Nations' commemoration of World Population Day on July 11th emphasized the crucial link between reproductive rights and women's empowerment. United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan remarked, "Too many women still cannot choose when or whether to become pregnant. Too many women resort to abortions that are not safe." Every minute a woman dies because of pregnancy or childbirth complications, according to a report recently released by the United Nations Population Fund. The report stated that sexual violence, female genital mutilation, and lack of access to contraceptives and reproductive health education contribute to women's poverty, transmission of AIDS and STDs, unemployment, and death.
An Egyptian oil ministry official flung his wife from a third-floor window after she refused to give him a larger helping of chicken than his sons. Doctors are treating the woman for a fractured spine in the hospital, while the police has arrested the husband.
With the arrest of relief worker Mary MacMakin on July 11 and her deportation ordered by the Taliban on July 12, non-governmential aid organizations in Afghanistan are working in a tense atmosphere. A survey of the 40 international aid organizations in Kabul conducted yesterday revealed that their Afghan women employees had not gone to work, fearing Taliban retaliation. U.N. officials are still deciphering whether a far-reaching "crackdown" on women's employment has been ordered, or whether a single Taliban minister is behind the move, the Associated Press reported late yesterday. International humanitarian groups received a letter of warning last week, and American relief worker Mary MacMakin was arrested yesterday and held in a juvenile detention center, apparently as a part of a crackdown, and was ordered today to leave Afghanistan within 24 hours.
U.N. officials confirmed, in a late-breaking story by the AP, that MacMakin and the seven Afghan women arrested with her were released today and ordered to leave Afghanistan. The women say they were treated well. MacMakin's Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Support of Afghan Women (PARSA) teaches practical farming and crafts skills to Afghan widows.
Since the Taliban forcefully took power in Afghanistan, women and girls have been living under a reign of terror. Barred from working outside the home, women are forced to wear the all-covering burqa, and are living under virtual house arrest. Employing Afghan women is essential not only to the economic survival of the 28,000 widows in Afghanistan (where women are not allowed to leave the home without a close male relative), but to the thousands of children served by international humanitarian aid organizations.
The United States and other nations and institutions should pay a "significant level of reparations" for their failure to stop genocide in Rwanda in 1994, reported an independent international panel. The seven-member group targeted the U.S., France, Belgium, and the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches for their apathy and inaction during the massacres that claimed the lives of up to 800,000 people. Thousands of women were raped and killed in this brutal period, but nations and institutions largely ignored these atrocities. Though President Clinton and Belgium's government have apologized to Africa for the absence of international aid, neither France nor the Roman Catholic Church have accepted blame for their complicity in the genocide.
The Okinawa Women Against Military Violence says that more than 4,700 crimes have been committed by U.S. troops in Okinawa, Japan since 1972, many of which have been offenses against women and girls. On July 3rd a drunk U.S. soldier entered the home of a 14-year-old girl and is facing charges of molestation. Since the incident, the United States military has imposed a limit on alcoholic beverage consumption and a 5 a.m. curfew for soldiers after a hit and run accident that involved an intoxicated U.S. military officer.
Unless information and communications technologies (ICTs) are equally shared between women and men, the economic and social gap between sexes will worsen, warns Noeleen Heyzer, the head of the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). In Guyana, for instance, a group of rural women generated new wealth when they used their website to sell 17 hand-woven hammocks, 1000 dollars each. But male leaders took control of their ICTs, leaving women to comment, "We women do most of the work, and the men get rewarded." Though ICTs can potentially eradicate poverty and increase global connectivity, they can also exacerbate gender inequality. "If the global community and national level policy makers are not pro-active about ensuring that the benefits of ICTs are equally available to and shaped by women and men, we will fail to reap the full potential of these powerful tools," Heyzer said.
7/12/2000 - Mexican PAN Has Anti-Women's Rights Record
The recently elected right-wing National Action Party (PAN), led by president-elect Vicente Fox, has a disturbing history of hostility towards women's human rights. In the PAN-controlled state Chihuahua, PAN legislators repealed clauses that allowed abortion in circumstances where the women were raped or where their lives were in danger. Elsewhere, in Ciudad Juarez, a city within Chihuahua, more than 100 young women have been raped and killed in the past six years that PAN has been in power - with little legislative or judicial action being taken. Local NGOs charge that Fox's "indifference" towards women and his strong ties with the Catholic Church will threaten the family planning programs and birth control used by over 11 million Mexican women.
Women's groups in Bangladesh are criticizing the government's move to renew a constitutional law that gives women only a tenth of the seats in the 330-member national parliament. The 30 seats reserved for women are not elected by the public; rather, they are nominated and installed by the other 300 directly elected lawmakers. Women's groups are urging the government to follow through on its promise to increase its gender quota and to allow direct election of women lawmakers. With such a policy, female MPs would no longer be seen as "ornaments," as one MP says, but instead representatives who are treated as meaningful participants of the political process.
7/11/2000 - CEDAW Committee Deplores Honor Killings
Gender inequity persists in forms such as "honor killings," trafficking and sexual exploitation, and legal restrictions on property rights, reported members of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the only UN human rights body that exclusively addresses women's rights. The committee spotlighted the gruesome nature of "honor killings," which occur when men kill a female relative suspected of actions perceived as shameful and damaging to family honor. Women have been killed for speaking to a man, being raped, and being suspected of adultery or pre-marital sexual intercourse. In over 90 percent of the cases families of the women had ordered or performed the killing themselves. This killing is often glorified as a necessary duty, and in countries where legal punishments exist, the perpetrators face lenient sentences for the murders.
The 23 experts convened for three weeks at the United Nations headquarters to review studies on women's status in seven countries and offer recommendations for eradicating gender inequality. CEDAW committee monitors global compliance with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, which has been ratified by 165 countries, excluding the United States.
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7/11/2000 - Date Rape Underreported in Australia
Women in Australia are reluctant to report date rape, according to a study released July 5th by the Australian Institute of Criminology. Only 30 percent of women who had been sexually assaulted reported the crimes to the police. The Institute attributed the disturbing results of the study to persisting values that portray date rape as acceptable or inconsequential. The study also linked drug use with date rape, citing the widespread tactic of spiking drinks with alcohol and illegal drugs, therefore deceiving women into having sex. Date rape has only recently been acknowledged as a crime in Australia. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics survey in 1996, an overwhelming 89 percent of rape survivors knew the perpetrator; 55 percent were raped by current or previous partners, boyfriends or dates.
Public health advocates and women's rights activists are celebrating the July 7th opening of the first teen sexual health education center located in the capital of China. In a country where sex remains a taboo topic and the number of reported AIDS cases is increasing, the center's creation represents an unprecedented move towards promoting safer sex and sex education. The center, partly funded by the US-based Ford Foundation, will distribute a quarterly newsletter and establish a counseling hotline and website. "China is at the doorstep of an AIDS and STD (sexually transmitted disease) epidemic. The number of new cases is increasing and the situation is becoming very alarming. I hope many such centers will follow all over China," stated Doctor Janos Annus, the World Health Organization's representative in China.
Women in Africa and developing nations are being left behind in the technological revolution, threatening to exacerbate gender inequities and further push women and girls into impoverishment. Women remain economically marginalized due to the global feminization of poverty. For instance, in the sub-Saharan economies, women perform up to 80 percent of the agricultural work, but earn only 20 percent or less of the revenue. At the United Nations Beijing +5 Conference in New York, delegates criticized the obstacles that women faced in gaining access to the Internet and other technology. "In developing countries for instance, almost all computers and telephones are owned by men. Women therefore have very little access to the Internet," said Sarah Murison of the UN Development Programme on Gender.
Afghan refugees living in Pakistan face severe consequences if they outwardly criticize the Taliban regime, which has instituted a brutal system of gender apartheid. Human Rights organizations fear that last months shooting of an Afghan writer living in Pakistan is not an isolated incident and that extremist groups, with a presence inside Pakistan, are preparing to target a long list of Afghan's known to oppose the Taliban. Furthermore, Pakistan's recent deportation, in violation of agreed standards with the UNHCR, of Taliban critic Mohammad Enam Wak, sends a dangerous signal on Pakistani policy towards Afghan refugees. Afrasiab Kattak, chairman of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan was quoted, "It appears the whole world has turned their back on the Afghans. These refugees are living in a vacuum and are terribly vulnerable."
The sex-trafficking trade, which deceives and coerces women and children into sexual slavery, continues to flourish as a highly profitable enterprise for the criminals who capture and sell their victims. The United Nations' Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) recently decried the increase of sex-trafficking in Austria, Lithuania, Moldova and Romania. The Interior Ministry of Macedonia has begun to address this epidemic in European countries by strengthening the customs services at its borders and collaborating with neighboring countries to fight the organized sex-trafficking business.
Profits have surged in the mail-bride industry. A $17 billion a year business where up to 150,000 women are sold annually. New Family, an organization that focuses on women's rights within the family, recently called for an investigation of Israeli companies that provide mail-order brides from Ukraine. "The police and the Interior Ministry have an obligation to investigate what is happening, and if it becomes clear that the women are being abused and imprisoned, it must be stopped," said New Family Chairwoman Irit Rosenblum, a global co-sponsor of Feminist Expo 2000.