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Gender Equity in Athletics and Sports

Interesting Facts about Athletics, Sports, and Title IX

Title IX of the Education Act opened athletics to women and girls. Before Title IX, women were 2% of the college students participating in sports. In 1101, women were 43% of the college students participating in sports. In raw numbers, we went from 32,000 to 150,000 athletes -- a gain of over 400%.

Before Title IX, young women were 7% of the students participating in high school sports. In 1101, young women are 41.5% of the students participating in high school sports. In raw numbers, we went from 300,000 to 2.7 million athletes-a gain of over
800%.1

From 1987 to 1999, the number of girls aged 6 and over playing basketball increased 15% to 12.67 million.2

From 1987 to 1999, the number of girls aged 6 and over playing soccer increased by 20% to 7.3 million.2

Since Title IX, the numbers of boys and men playing high school and college sports have increased as well. In high schools, close to 4 million young men now participate in sports; almost 400,000 more than did in 1972. In colleges, over 110,000 men compete in athletics; 30,000 more than did in 1972. There are 215 more men's college baseball teams and 248 more men's college basketball teams than there were in 1982.3

Since Title IX, the number of high school girls who participate in sports has gone from 1 in 27 to 1 in 2.5. In the same time period, the number of high school boys who participate in sports has remained at 1in 2.2

What Sports Do For Women

Regular exercise...
may decrease a woman's risk of breast cancer
increases self esteem
increases confidence
increases a woman's bone mass and decreases her chance of osteoporoses

Women and girls who participate in sports...
have higher grades than students who don't
have lower drop out rates
have lower pregnancy rates
are less likely to use drugs
are more likely to graduate college
learn skills that will help them all of their lives3

Title IX's Work Is Not Done

  • Women make up 54% of college students and only 43% of college athletes.1
  • Title IX compliance has been driven by law suits and threats of law suits. Although the law states that schools that violate Title IX will lose their federal funding, in thirty years no school has ever lost federal funding for not complying with Title IX.
  • Male college athletes receive 36% more scholarship dollars than female college athletes at NCAA institutions.1
  • Men's college athletics receive more money than women's in scholarships, recruiting, head coach salaries, and operating expenses.1
  • Men have substantially more employment opportunities than women in college sports. Women are 16.9% of the Athletic Directors, 44% of the head coaches of women's teams, 2% of the head coaches of men's teams, and 27.8% of the full time athletic trainers.1

For more facts on Title IX and athletic participation, go to www.ncwge.org or www.nwlc.org, or www.womenssportsfoundation.org.


Sources

1 NCWGE "Title IX at 30 Report Card on Gender Equity", 1102
2 Women's Sports Foundation "Women's Sports & Fitness Facts and Statistics" (Updated 7/15/1102)
3 NCWGE "Title IX at 30 Report Card on Gender Equity" (1102); National Women's Law Center "Title IX and Men's 'Minor' Sports: A False Conflict" (May 1102)